20:1 The Levite in a general assembly declares his wrong; 20:8 The decree of the assembly; 20:12 The Benjamites, being cited, make head against the Israelites; 20:18 The Israelites in two battles lose forty thousand; 20:26 They destroy by a stratagem all the Benjamites, except six hundred.
Verse 1Then allJudges 20:2, 20:8, 20:11, 21:5; Deuteronomy 13:12-18; Joshua 22:12as one man1 Samuel 11:7, 11:8; 2 Samuel 19:14; Ezra 3:1; Nehemiah 8:1from DanJudges 18:29; 1 Samuel 3:20; 2 Samuel 3:10, 24:2; 1 Chronicles 21:2; 2 Chronicles 30:5with theNumbers 32:1, 32:40; Joshua 17:1; 2 Samuel 2:9unto theJudges 20:18, 20:26, 11:11in Mizpeh10:17, 11:11; Joshua 15:38, 18:26; 1 Samuel 7:5, 7:6, 10:17; 2 Kings 25:23 It does not appear that the Israelites on this occasion, were summoned by the authority of any one common head, but they came together by the consent and agreement, as it were, of one common heart, fired with a holy zeal for the honour of God and Israel. The place of their meeting was Mizpeh; they gathered together unto the Lord there; for Mizpeh was so very near to Shiloh, that their encampment might very well be supposed to reach from Mizpeh to Shiloh. Shiloh was a small town, and therefore, when there was a general meeting of the people to present themselves before God, they chose Mizpeh for their head quarters, which was the next adjoining city of note; perhaps, because they were not willing to give that trouble to Shiloh, which so great an assembly would occasion; it being the residence of the priests that attended the tabernacle.ReciprocalGenesis 14:14 - Dan; 21:31 - Beersheba; 22:19 - to Beersheba; 26:23 - Beersheba; Joshua 11:3 - land; Judges 21:1 - had sworn; 2 Samuel 17:11 - all Israel; 1 Kings 4:25 - from Dan; 12:29 - Dan; 2 Kings 23:8 - Beersheba; 2 Chronicles 16:4 - Dan; 19:4 - Beersheba; Nehemiah 3:15 - Mizpah; 11:27 - General; Jeremiah 4:15 - a voice; 8:16 - was heard; 40:6 - Mizpah; Hosea 9:9 - GibeahVerse 2drew swordJudges 20:15, 20:17, 8:10; 2 Samuel 24:9; 2 Kings 3:26Reciprocal1 Samuel 14:38 - chief; 2 Samuel 14:13 - peopleVerse 3the children of BenjaminProverbs 22:3; Matthew 5:25; Luke 12:58, 12:59, 14:31, 14:32how wasJudges 19:22-27ReciprocalNehemiah 3:15 - MizpahVerse 4the LeviteHeb. the man the LeviteI cameJudges 19:15-28ReciprocalJoshua 18:28 - Gibeath; Hosea 5:8 - GibeahVerse 5And the menJudges 19:22besetGenesis 19:4-8and my concubineJudges 19:25, 19:26forcedHeb. humbled, Deuteronomy 22:24; Ezekiel 22:10, 22:11ReciprocalJoshua 18:28 - Gibeath; Judges 19:28 - But none; 2 Samuel 13:14 - forced her; Hosea 10:9 - fromVerse 6cut herJudges 19:29folly in Israel20:10, 19:23; Genesis 34:7; Joshua 7:15; 2 Samuel 13:12, 13:13ReciprocalDeuteronomy 22:21 - she hath wrought; Ezekiel 22:9 - they commitVerse 7ye are allExodus 19:5, 19:6; Deuteronomy 4:6, 14:1, 14:2; 1 Corinthians 5:1, 5:6, 5:10-12give hereJudges 19:30; Joshua 9:14; Proverbs 20:18, 24:6; James 1:5ReciprocalJudges 19:29 - divided her; 20:18 - asked; Job 34:4 - chooseVerse 8as one manJudges 20:1, 20:11We will not21:1, 21:5; Proverbs 21:3; Ecclesiastes 9:10Reciprocal2 Kings 3:11 - that we may; Nehemiah 8:1 - as one manVerse 9by lot against itJoshua 14:2; 1 Samuel 14:41, 14:42; 1 Chronicles 24:5; Nehemiah 11:1; Proverbs 16:33; Jonah 1:7; Acts 1:26
Verse 10ten thousandor, myriad, Genesis 24:60ReciprocalDeuteronomy 22:21 - she hath wrought; Judges 20:6 - folly in Israel; 21:1 - had sworn; Nehemiah 11:1 - one of ten; Jonah 1:7 - and letVerse 11ReciprocalJudges 20:1 - Then all; 20:8 - as one man; 1 Samuel 18:1 - the soul of JonathanVerse 12sent menDeuteronomy 13:14, 20:10; Joshua 22:13-16; Matthew 18:15-18; Romans 12:18
Verse 13deliver2 Samuel 20:21, 20:22children of BelialJudges 19:22; Deuteronomy 13:13; 1 Samuel 30:22; 2 Samuel 20:1, 23:6; 1 Kings 21:13; 2 Chronicles 13:7put awayDeuteronomy 17:7, 17:12, 19:19, 21:21, 22:21, 22:24, 24:7; Ecclesiastes 11:10would not1 Samuel 2:25; 2 Chronicles 25:16, 25:20; Proverbs 29:1; Hosea 9:9, 10:9; Romans 1:32; Revelation 18:4, 18:5 The conduct of the Israelites was very equitable in this demand; but perhaps the rulers or elders of Gibeah ought previously to have been applied to, to deliver up the criminals to justice. However, the refusal of the Benjamites, and their protection of those who had committed this horrible wickedness, because they were of their own tribe, prove them to have been deeply corrupted, and (all their advantages considered) as ripe for divine vengeance as the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah had been. Confiding in their own valour and military skill, they seen to have first prepared for battle in this unequal contest with such superior numbers.
Verse 14Numbers 20:20, 21:23; 2 Chronicles 13:13; Job 15:25, 15:26Reciprocal1 Samuel 10:26 - Gibeah; Hosea 10:9 - fromVerse 15twentyJudges 20:25, 20:35, 20:46, 20:47; Numbers 26:41ReciprocalJudges 8:10 - fell an hundred; 20:22 - encouragedVerse 16lefthandedItter yad yemeeno, "obstructed in his right hand;" so the Chaldee Targum, gemid beedaih deyammeena, contracted or impeded in his right hand." Lev. Clerc observes, that the 700 men left-handed seem therefore to have been made slingers, because they could not use the right hand, which is employed in managing heavier arms; and they could discharge the stones from the sling in a direction against which their opponents were not upon their guard, and thus do the greater execution. Judges 3:15; 1 Chronicles 12:2sling stonesThe sling was a very ancient warlike instrument; and, in the hands of those who were skilled in the use of it, produced astonishing effects. The inhabitants of the islands of Baleares, now Majorca and Minorca, were the most celebrated slingers of antiquity. They did not permit their children to break their fast, till they had struck down the bread they had to eat from the top of a pole, or some distant eminence. Vegetius tells us, that slingers could in general hit the mark at 600 feet distance. 1 Samuel 17:40, 17:49, 17:50, 25:29; 2 Chronicles 26:14
Verse 23weptJudges 20:26, 20:27; Psalm 78:34-36; Hosea 5:15And theIt seems most evident that the Israelites did not seek the protection of God. When they "went to the house of God," - Judges 20:18 it was not to enquire concerning the expediency of the war, nor of its success, but which of the tribes should begin the attack, and here the question is, "Shall I go up again to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother?" Having so much right on their side, they had no doubt of the justice of their cause, and the propriety of their conduct; and having such a superiority of numbers, they had no doubt of success. But God humbled them, and delivered them into the hands of their enemies; and shewed them that the race was not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong.ReciprocalGenesis 33:9 - my brother; Exodus 28:30 - General; Numbers 27:21 - he shall; Joshua 7:6 - until the eventide; Judges 21:2 - the house; 21:6 - repented them; 21:12 - virgins; 1 Samuel 10:22 - inquired; 14:18 - Bring hither; 30:8 - inquired; 1 Kings 22:5 - Inquire; 2 Kings 3:11 - that we may; Proverbs 20:18 - andVerse 25destroyedJudges 20:21; Genesis 18:25; Job 9:12, 9:13; Psalm 97:2; Romans 2:5, 3:5, 11:33ReciprocalGenesis 49:27 - a wolf; Judges 8:10 - fell an hundred; 20:15 - twentyVerse 26all the childrenJudges 20:18, 20:23wept1 Samuel 7:6; 2 Chronicles 20:3; Ezra 8:21, 9:4, 9:5; Joel 1:14, 2:12-18; Jonah 3:5-10ReciprocalLeviticus 3:1 - a sacrifice; Numbers 27:21 - he shall; Deuteronomy 23:9 - General; Joshua 7:6 - until the eventide; Judges 21:2 - the house; 2 Samuel 3:35 - till the; 2 Kings 3:11 - that we may; 22:19 - wept; Nehemiah 9:1 - children; Proverbs 20:18 - andVerse 27inquiredJudges 20:18, 20:23; Numbers 27:21the arkJoshua 18:1; 1 Samuel 4:3, 4:4; Psalm 78:60, 78:61; Jeremiah 7:12 The loss of two battles at length brought this stiff-necked people to enquire of the Lord; for all the company at this time met at Shiloh, and kept a day of fasting and prayer with great earnestness and solemnity. "Behold, the Lord's hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear." Isaiah 59:1ReciprocalExodus 25:22 - and I will; 28:30 - General; Numbers 10:33 - the ark; Deuteronomy 20:2 - General; 1 Samuel 14:18 - Bring hither; 1 Chronicles 15:29 - as the ark; Jeremiah 21:2 - Inquire; John 11:51 - beingVerse 28PhinehasIt is evident, from this mention of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, that these transactions must have taken place not long after the death of Joshua. Numbers 25:7-13; Joshua 22:13, 22:30-32, 24:33stoodDeuteronomy 10:8, 18:5Shall I yetJoshua 7:7; 1 Samuel 14:37, 23:4-12, 30:8; 2 Samuel 5:19-24, 6:3, 6:7-12; Proverbs 3:5, 3:6; Jeremiah 10:23Go upJudges 1:2, 7:9; 2 Chronicles 20:17ReciprocalExodus 6:25 - Phinehas; 28:30 - General; Deuteronomy 20:2 - General; Joshua 9:14 - asked not; 11:6 - morrow; Judges 1:1 - asked; 1 Samuel 10:22 - inquired; 14:18 - Bring hither; 1 Chronicles 6:4 - Phinehas; Ezra 7:5 - Phinehas; John 11:51 - beingVerse 29IsraelThough God had promised them success, they knew they could expect it only by the use of proper means. Hence they used all prudent precaution, and employed all their military skill.liersJudges 20:34; Joshua 8:4; 2 Samuel 5:23ReciprocalJoshua 8:2 - lay thee; 1 Kings 22:5 - Inquire; Nehemiah 4:11 - They shall notVerse 31drawnJoshua 8:14-16smite of the people, and kill, as atHeb. smite of the people wounded as at, etcthe house of Godor, Beth-el, Gibeah. Judges 19:13, 19:14; Isaiah 10:29thirtyJoshua 7:5Reciprocal8:5 - that we will; 8:16 - drawn away; Judges 20:39 - And whenVerse 32Let us fleeThis was done, not only because they had placed an ambuscade behind Gibeah, which was to enter and burn the city as soon as the Benjamites left it; but it would seem, that the slingers, by being within the city and its fortifications, had great advantage over the Israelites by their slings, when they could not come among them with their swords, unless they got them in the plain country. Joshua 8:15, 8:16Reciprocal8:6 - They flee; 2 Samuel 17:9 - someVerse 33rose upJoshua 8:18-22put themselvesThere appear to have been three divisions of the Israelitish army: one at Baal-tamar - which was situated, says Eusebius, near Gibeah a second behind the city in ambush; and a third, who skirmished with the Benjamites before Gibeah.Reciprocal8:4 - lie in wait; 2 Samuel 17:9 - he is hid; 2 Chronicles 13:14 - looked backVerse 34ten thousandJudges 20:29knew notJoshua 8:14; Job 21:13; Proverbs 4:19, 29:6; Ecclesiastes 8:11, 8:12, 9:12; Isaiah 3:10, 3:11; 47:11; Matthew 24:44; Luke 21:34, 21:34; 1 Thessalonians 5:3ReciprocalMatthew 24:39 - GeneralVerse 35twentyJudges 20:15, 20:44-46; Job 20:5 Though the numbers of the Israelites were immensely superior to those of Benjamin, though the stratagem was well laid and ingeniously executed, and the battle bravely fought, yet the inspired historian ascribes the victory to the hand of the Lord, as entirely as if he had smitten the Benjamites by a miracle.ReciprocalJudges 8:10 - fell an hundred; 20:46 - twenty; Psalm 68:27 - littleVerse 36for the menJoshua 8:15-29Reciprocal8:4 - lie in wait; 8:16 - called togetherVerse 37the liers in wait hastedJoshua 8:19drew themselves alongor, made a long sound with the trumpets, Exodus 19:13; Joshua 6:5
Verse 38Now thereFrom this verse to the end of the chapter, we have the details of the same operations which are mentioned, in a general way, in the preceding verses of this chapter.signor, time, Genesis 17:21; 2 Kings 4:16 *marg.andHeb. withflameHeb. elevationReciprocalJoel 2:30 - pillarsVerse 39And whenJudges 20:31smite and killHeb. smite the wounded
Verse 40a pillarGenesis 19:28; Song of Songs 3:6; Joel 2:30; Revelation 19:3lookedJoshua 8:20flameHeb. whole consumptionReciprocal2 Kings 3:24 - smote the; 6:20 - openedVerse 41were amazedExodus 15:9, 15:10; Isaiah 13:8, 13:9, 33:14; Luke 17:27, 17:28, 21:26; 1 Thessalonians 5:3; 2 Peter 2:12; Revelation 6:15-17, 18:8-10was come upon themHeb. touched themReciprocal1 Samuel 13:6 - in a straitVerse 42the battleLamentations 1:3; Hosea 9:9, 10:9Reciprocal2 Samuel 10:9 - General; 1 Chronicles 19:10 - set against; 1 Thessalonians 5:3 - thenVerse 43enclosedJoshua 8:20-22with easeor, from Menuchah, etcover againstHeb. unto over againstReciprocal2 Samuel 10:9 - General; 2 Kings 7:17 - the people trode upon him; 1 Chronicles 19:10 - set againstVerse 44ReciprocalNumbers 1:37 - General; Judges 20:35 - twentyVerse 45RimmonJoshua 15:32; 1 Chronicles 6:77; Zechariah 14:10Reciprocal1 Samuel 14:2 - a pomegranateVerse 46twentyJudges 20:15, 20:35Reciprocal8:10 - fell an hundred; 1 Samuel 9:21 - a BenjamiteVerse 47six hundredJudges 21:13; Psalm 103:9, 103:10; Isaiah 1:9; Jeremiah 14:7; Lamentations 3:32; Habakkuk 3:2, rock of Rimmon, The rock Rimmon was doubtless a strong place; but it is uncertain where situated. It is probable however, that it was near, and took its name from, the village of Remmon, mentioned by Eusebius, fifteen miles north from Jerusalem. It appears that rocks are still resorted to in the East, as places of security; and some of them are even capable of sustaining a siege. Deut. Lam. Roque says, that "The Grand Seignior, wishing to seize the person of the emir - Fakr-eddin, prince of the Druses gave orders to the pacha to take him prisoner: he accordingly came in search of him, with a new army, in the district of Chouf, which is part of mount Lebanon, wherein is the village of Gesin, and close to it, the rock which served for a retreat to the emir. It is named in Arabic, Magara Gesin, i.e., the cavern of Gessin, by which name it is famous. The pacha pressed the emir so closely, that this unfortunate prince was obliged to shut himself up in the cleft of a great rock, with a small number of his officers. The pacha besieged him there several months; and was going to blow up the rock by a mine, when the emir capitulated.ReciprocalJudges 20:15 - twenty; 21:14 - sufficed them not; Zechariah 14:10 - RimmonVerse 48smote themDeuteronomy 13:15-17; 2 Chronicles 25:13, 28:6-9; Proverbs 18:19came to handHeb. was foundthey came toHeb. were foundReciprocalJudges 21:23 - repaired